Posts Tagged ‘BRETTON WOODS’

ΑΡΤΕΜΗΣ-ΣΩΡΡΑΣ-ΣΤΟ-ΚΑΝΑΛΙ-ΕΝΑ-1-ΚΑΒΑΛΑΣ-16-5-2899

Artemis Sorras: I’ll tell you a fact that,… I live for the moment,….
that while seeing you all on your knees….

And although I could have showed up and have all kneeling in front of me…. “such ability-possibility I possess”…
and that is in fact exactly what “the others” wanted me to do with all their proposals and so called DEALS…
I have made my decisions and the fact “EXCITES” me…
That all “those” who you consider as “big and important”… I’ll prove to you that they’re nothing more than….”bip”…..”bip”… And all those you think are sitting in so called “high places”… they’ll come to kneel in frond of your feet.!!!
So my fellow brother and fellow ELLIN… I’ve come to pull you up from you’re kneeling position “which you are in”, and you should “NEVER” allow your self to be there….
The Ellenic genus never kneeled not even to GODs… We always stared all directly in the eyes… As a matter of fact we the Ellines even opposed the GODs (on many occasions) to find-understand our Godly strength we always bear incite us….
…so I’ll make you stand up straight and I’ll have those animals kneeling before you.!!
This fact “excites” me greatly,… I’ve made my choises… simply because it’s what I have to do.!!!
If yoy don’t realize that yet…. well it’s your FREE WILL… so it’s basically up to you… But with your right for causalıty of how you want your self to be.
If my fellow Ellines don’t want that, let them tell me just that.!!
on the other hand… I call them all to come to the “E.SY NGOs” and all together as one, decide to order me to constract their Body-Entity… and from there we’ll get-take our “freedom”…. And I’ll finance everything… And I’ll finance everything, even though my fellow Ellines have their own money but their so called managers purposely ignore it.!!
Who’ll be your tomorrows director of these assets-amounts?? How will you (the people) “tomorrow” run all this intelligently??
I have it already set up for you… come and check it with your own intellect…
[Mr Sorra thank you for….]…
I – we all want a complete change… the “ELLINON STATE”.!! That’s a fact which I-we all will complete (no matter what and no matter the cost) so let’s do it and….
At least even though there’s no chance of failure… It’ll be our own responsibility, our own choice.!! …Basically EVERYTHING else has failed, everywhere-anyhow.!!
ALL HAVE FAILED… dogmas – political parties – ideologies…

THE WHOLE PLANET HAS FAILED and is BANK ROBBED and all Countries on it are dying..!!
So tell me which Country is in good state?? Which one has a good prosperous system?? Which Country has good policy?? Which Country has good economy?? “NONE”.!!!
Well then… gentlemen (PLANET Managers), you’ve all FAILED.!!
[Mr Sorra… thank you very much…]

Artemis Sorras: My regards to all Ellines & People Fighters.!!

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Associated Press

Acting Secretary of State Dean Acheson, standing at center, and representatives of 28 Allied nations met in Washington in 1945 to sign the pact reached at the Bretton Woods conference.

By ANNIE LOWREY

WASHINGTON — A Treasury economist rummaging in the department’s library has stumbled on a historical treasure hiding in plain sight: a transcript of the Bretton Woods conference in 1944 that cast the foundations of the modern international monetary system.

Historians had never known that a transcript existed for the event held in the heat of World War II, when delegates from 44 allied nations fighting Hitler gathered in the mountains of New Hampshire to create the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. But there were three copies in archives and libraries around Washington that had never been made public, until now.

“It’s as if someone handed us Madison’s notes on the debate over the Constitution,” said Eric Rauchway, a historian the University of California, Davis.

Economic historians who have viewed the transcript say it adds color and detail to the historical record, an already thick one given the many contemporaneous and subsequent accounts of Bretton Woods. The transcript seems to contain no great surprises, but it sheds light on the intense debates as the war raged abroad.

It depicts John Maynard Keynes, the British economist, hurrying to marshal support for the broad agreements on international finance. It underscores the tremendous power then wielded by Britain and, especially, the United States. It also shows the seeds of contemporary disputes being sown.

For instance, seven decades ago, a number of poorer or smaller countries were protesting their International Monetary Fund quotas, which determine power in the fund. Many of those countries, including China and India, are still pushing for more influence today.

In one section of the transcript, an American representative lays out a proposal for apportioning power in the fund and underscores what was at stake, with the war coming to its bloody climax in Europe.

“We fight together on sodden battlefields. We sail together on the majestic blue. We fly together in the ethereal sky,” said Fred M. Vinson, who later became chief justice of the United States. “The test of this conference is whether we can walk together, solve our economic problems, down the road to peace as we today march to victory.”

But the response was not one of absolute unity.

“In spite of the very eloquent and moving speech of the United States delegate, on behalf of the Iranian delegation I wish to state that the quota proposed for my country is entirely unsatisfactory,” a delegate from Tehran responded.

Then, a delegate from China added: “I hesitate greatly to sound a note of discord at this conference. It has been the effort of the Chinese delegation to promote harmony and the success of this great common enterprise. But every delegation has its difficulties.”

The Netherlands, Greece, Australia, India, Yugoslavia, New Zealand, France, Ethiopia, Norway and Britain then added their comments and objections. “I think that a lot of people have thought of Bretton Woods as being a stitch-up job between United Kingdom and the United States,” Mr. Rauchway said. “But that’s overstated, and it’s definitely visible in this transcript. You can see the poorer countries fighting their own corner.”

Kurt Schuler a Treasury Department economist, was browsing in an “out of the way” section of uncataloged material in the library two years ago when he came across the Bretton Woods document. He flipped through and saw some remarks by Keynes that he was not familiar with, sort of the economists’ equivalent of a Bob Dylan fan finding unknown lyrics.

“I checked them against Keynes’s collected works,” Mr. Schuler said. “And I knew I had something.”

His research revealed that there were three copies of the transcript that scores of economic historians were not aware of: the version at the Treasury Department; one in the National Archives; and the third in the International Monetary Fund archives.

In his spare time, Mr. Schuler set about turning the yellowed transcript into a book, with a co-editor, Andrew Rosenberg. It took a tremendous amount of work, Mr. Schuler said. They read the transcript aloud into transcription software. They added hyperlinks to documents referenced at the conference, and wrote summaries, annotations and historical notes.

This week, the polished transcript was published as an 800-page e-book by the Center for Financial Stability, a nonprofit group based in New York that researches financial markets, where Mr. Schuler is a senior fellow and Mr. Rosenberg a research associate.

“Everyone thinks they know what happened at Bretton Woods, but what they know has been filtered by generations of historical accounts,” Barry Eichengreen, a professor or economics and political science at the University of California, Berkeley, said in a statement. “International monetary history will never be the same.”

The transcript provides “insight in how it was that they were able to maintain a pace of work which allowed them to reach two really big agreements, on the I.M.F. and the World Bank, within a space of three weeks,” Mr. Schuler said. “Keynes was something of a task master,” he added.

Benn Steil, a senior fellow and director of international economics at the Council on Foreign Relations, said readers can see the British Empire “disintegrating before your eyes,” in the transcript. “The Indians are so vociferous that the British are ripping them off. The British are both furious and mortified that their colony would do this to them,” he said, describing a dispute over debts with the colonies.

“Bretton Woods was itself 95 percent Kabuki theater,” he said. “But it’s interesting Kabuki theater.”

 

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Bretton Woods Monetary Conference, July 1-22, 1944

In July 1944, representatives from 44 nations met at the Mount Washington Hotel in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire for the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference. The United States government selected the Mount Washington Hotel as the site of the now famous Bretton Woods Conference for various reasons: its remoteness offered seclusion from outside interference; the White Mountains scenery was spectacular; and war-time security was more easily managed. The Mount Washington Hotel was closed for business in 1930 and completely refurbished before the conference.

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Historic plaque with the inscription commemorating the Bretton Woods Conference, July 1-22, 1944 The U.S. Secretary of the Treasury, Henry Morgenthau, Jr., addresses the delegates to the Conference, July 8, 1944

“…a prodigious amount of work was done during the three weeks of the Conference. Many persons were assigned to both Bank and Fund committees, which met around the clock, and in addition to committee meetings, there were plenary sessions, where microphones were whisked from speaker to speaker by Boy Scouts…” recalls Shirley Boskey (International Bank Notes, July 1956)

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Delegates in front of the Mount Washington Hotel, July 2, 1944 An informal gathering of the attendees of the Conference, July 1944

More than a year later, representatives of 28 nations gathered at the State Department in Washington, D.C. to sign the Bretton Woods Monetary Agreements preliminary agreed upon at the Bretton Woods Conference.

Click to see full-size image

Click to see full-size image

Articles of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund and IBRD, July 1944

“Bretton Woods Recalled” by Shirley Boskey, International Bank Notes, July 1957

Fred Vinson, the U.S. Secretary of the Treasury, said at the time of the formal signing of the Bretton Woods Agreements: “History is being written today as we execute these documents and breathe the breath of life into the International Monetary Fund and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. We can be thankful that the history we are now writing is not another chapter in the almost endless chronicle of war and strife. Ours is a mission of peace – not just lip service to the ideals of peace – but action, concrete action, designed to establish the economic foundations of peace on the bed rock of genuine international cooperation.

“If these two great international institutions are to achieve the mission which the world has so hopefully entrusted to their care, it will require the wholehearted and concerted cooperation of each of the member countries and their people” (Treasury Department, Press Release, December 27, 1945)

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Lord Keynes addressing the Conference meeting, July 1944 U.S. Acting Secretary of State Dean Acheson addresses representatives of 28 nations gathered to sign the Bretton Woods Monetary Agreement, December 27, 1945

Bretton Woods 60th Anniversary Virtual Exhibition

Articles of Agreement

Previously Featured Documents/Photos

This feature is produced by the World Bank Group Archives to highlight the World Bank’s contributions to development.

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ΠΑΓΚ.ΠΛΟΥΤΟΣ! ΤΟΤΕ ΓΙΑΤΙ ΤΟΣΟ ΜΙΣΟΣ ΚΑΙ ΕΞΑΘΛΙΩΣΗ ΓΙΑ ΤΟΥΣ ΠΟΛΙΤΕΣ ΤΟΥ ΠΛΑΝΗΤΗ;

newego_LARGE_t_1101_53789592.JPGGeorge Kinikos

ΔΩΣΤΕ ΠΟΛΥ ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ ΣΤΑ ΠΑΡΑΚΑΤΩ ΕΓΓΡΑΦΑ ….ΣΤΑ ΟΝΌΜΑΤΑ ΤΩΝ ΛΟΓΑΡΙΑΣΜΩΝ ΠΟΥ ΕΙΝΑΙ ΤΑ ΙΔΙΑ ΜΕ ΤΩΝ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΚΥΠΡΙΑΚΩΝ ΤΡΑΠΕΖΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΕΙΝΑΙ ΑΥΤΟΝΟΗΤΟ ΟΤΙ ΥΠΑΡΧΕΙ ΑΜΕΣΗ ΣΧΕΣΗ …ΑΛΛΑ ΠΟΛΥ ΠΙΟ ΣΗΜΑΝΤΙΚΟ ΣΤΟ ΠΟΙΟΙ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΥΠΟΓΡΑΨΕΙ ΤΗΝ ΠΑΡΟΥΣΑ ΣΥΜΩΝΙΑ …… 

ΘΑ ΔΕΙΤΕ ΟΤΙ ΕΙΝΑΙ ΜΙΑ ΠΡΑΓΜΑΤΙΚΟΤΗΤΑ …ΤΟΤΕ ΓΙΑΤΙ ΤΟΣΟ ΜΙΣΟΣ ΚΑΙ ΕΞΑΘΛΙΩΣΗ ΓΙΑ ΤΟΥΣ ΠΟΛΙΤΕΣ ΤΟΥ ΠΛΑΝΗΤΗ;…..ΕΜΕΙΣ ΡΩΤΑΜΕ …..

ΜΟΝΟ ΜΕ ΜΕΓΑΛΗ ΠΙΕΣΗ….. ΘΑ ΠΑΡΟΥΜΕ ΑΠΑΝΤΗΣΕΙΣ  ΑΔΕΡΦΙΑ!!! 

 

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BRETTON WOODS, B.I.S., ΤΡΑΠΕΖΕΣ ΚΑΙ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΟΙ ΛΟΓΑΡΙΑΣΜΟΙ ΚΑΤΑΠΙΣΤΕΥΜΑΤΩΝ!

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ΟΙ ΤΡΕΙΣ “ΜΥΣΤΙΚΕΣ” ΠΟΛΕΙΣ-ΚΡΑΤΗ ΤΩΝ ΕΠΙΚΥΡΙΑΡΧΩΝ…

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Global banking crisis? What global banking crisis? 

ΟΙ ΕΠΙΚΥΡΙΑΡΧΟΙ ΤΟΥ ΠΛΑΝΗΤΗ ΜΕ ΤΑ 500 ΤΡΙΣ $…ΚΑΙ Ο ΑΡΤΕΜΗΣ ΣΩΡΡΑΣ ΜΕ ΤΗΝ END..

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